Edward Emerson Barnard
Edward Emerson Barnard (December 16, 1857 – February 6, 1923)
(public domain image)
American astronomer and pioneer in astrophotography known for his catalog of dark nebulae of the Milky Way galaxy, as well as his discovery of Barnard's Star, a nearby red dwarf star. Using photographic techniques he proved that the dark nebulae were indeed regions of gas and dust blocking the light of more distant stars instead of the mere lack of stars in those regions as believed by many astronomers. He is also credited with the discovery of fourteen comets and the first moon of Jupiter to be discovered since Galileo in 1609, Amalthea.
Barnard's work is preserved in the 'Photographic Atlas of Selected Regions of the Milky Way' published after his death.